Several Drupal modules bring their own caching system and caching tables. For example: Views, Panels and SWF Tools. Each have their own configuration options. On production servers, it is wise to enable them.
The Views module cache is hidden as an option on the Edit View page: Caching... And lets you choose cache by time for query results and rendered output. I usually select the same time length for both. The Views module is content-unaware, but there is a module for that: Views Content Cache.
Other modules have their own specific settings, which you need to look up.
- Improved site performance and speed